The CRT-Industrial Complex
The third in a series . . .
The CRT-Industrial Complex
In my essay on “Critical Race Theory and the Long March Through the Institutions,” I examined what Critical Race Theory (CRT) is and what its philosophic origins are. The primary purpose of the present essay is to show how CRT made its way into America’s K-12 government school system. My specific concern is to highlight the various delivery mechanisms by which the Education Deep State smuggled CRT into America’s schools.
Before we examine how Critical Race Theory was introduced into America’s schools, let’s remind ourselves what CRT is and what its core principles are. Critical Race Theory assumes that true racism is more than just the bigoted ideas and actions of particular individuals but is instead built into the fabric of America’s social, political, legal, and economic institutions. In fact, CRT’s proponents believe that racism is literally built into the DNA of white people, which means that every thought, action, relationship, and interaction engaged in by white people is, to one degree or another, tinged with unconscious racial biases. The Seattle school district has, for instance, redefined racism simply as “whiteness”—that is, one is a racist by virtue of being white.
By this account, “white privilege”—the unseen and unspoken advantages enjoyed by whites—is inescapably everywhere in American society. What this means in practice is that any and all differences in outcome or achievement between races or ethnic groups can only be explained by systemic racism. The antidote to white privilege is what CRT’s proponents call “anti-racism,” which is a disposition to actively fight for the elimination of systemic racism and a policy to equalize all social, educational, political, and economic outcomes.
The corollary principles of CRT include:
First, the rejection of concepts such as “objectivity” and “truth” as white constructs. According to two leading CRT proponents, Gloria Ladson-Billings and William F. Tate, all “knowledge” and “truth” is relative: “truths only exist for this person in this predicament at this time.” This is how many schools around the country are trying to apply CRT principles to subjects such as math and the sciences, which they believe have hitherto been grounded in racism. The fact that there are performance disparities between races in subjects such as math and the various sciences is all the proof necessary to declare that truth-bearing and reality-oriented subjects such as math and science must be racist and therefore in need of curricular reconstruction.
Second, the repudiation of all the core values, principles, virtues, and institutions associated with the West, such as equality, liberty, individual rights, private property, merit, work, personal responsibility, equal protection under the law, neutrality, due process, federalism, freedom of speech color blindness, constitutionalism, separation of powers, and, most of all, capitalism because white people identify with them. According to the Seattle educators, racist values include “emphasizing individualism” as opposed to collectivism and having “a future time orientation.” In other words, you are a racist if you like to plan ahead.
Third, the assumption that virtually everything good or great produced by Anglo-European culture and its American offshoots is inherently racist and built on the slave labor of others, and therefore must be deconstructed, dismissed, or destroyed. Racism is everywhere, and it has infected everything. It’s in western painting, music, architecture, literature, philosophy, etc., which means that Michelangelo, Beethoven, Christopher Wren, Jane Austen, and Aristotle must be abandoned or forgotten. CRT rejects all that is good and great in Western Civilization.
Fourth, the demand that “critical” education be used to delegitimize, subvert, and overturn American society. Critical Race Theory is concerned first and foremost with turning students into advocates, activists, and change agents pushing a political agenda defined by radical egalitarianism. This means that CRT is not concerned with having students learn the great body of knowledge developed in the West over the course of several thousand years; it’s goal is to destroy all knowledge generated by white, cis-gendered, heterosexual men and replace it with a kind of politicized learning that seeks to transform society. According to education activist Christine Sleeter: “Working for social justice—redistribution of the world’s resources—is at the heart of what multicultural education should be about.”
How did Critical Race Theory go from being a crazy theory taught in America’s law schools to being the hegemonic curricular framework for America’s government schools? More to the point, how was CRT smuggled into America’s government school system? What are the institutions that are delivering CRT to America’s children?
This much can be said with certainty: America’s Education Deep State (i.e., the federal and state departments of education, the teachers’ unions, the “ed” schools, school boards (local, state, and national), accrediting agencies, licensure boards, various education associations, curriculum designers, textbook publishers, Diversity-Equity-Inclusion consultants etc.) has gone all in for Critical Race Theory. As we shall see, every institution of the Education Establishment is pushing CRT.
Where to begin?
The Federal Department of Education
Let’s start at the top of the political food chain with the Biden administration’s Department of Education, which is requiring school districts that receive federal funds for one of its “American History and Civics Education” programs to focus on a “national reckoning with systemic racism” and to “incorporate anti-racist practices into teaching and learning.” Grant-funded teachers must teach the core tents of Critical Race Theory, e.g., the “systemic racism, biases, inequities, and discriminatory policy and practice in American history.” They are also required to teach that “equity,” which means equal outcomes, is the solution to America’s race problems.
In 2020, the federal Department of Education funded a conference for teachers and school officials that featured as its keynote speaker the communist activist, Bettina Love, who called for “tearing down” the major institutions of the United States in their current form, including America’s government schools that are “built to manage racism.” Love went on to claim that racism permeates America’s schools, and she further called for “radically changing” government schooling and “tearing down structures” that hinder “anti-racist education.” But Love is a faux abolitionist. She does not really want to abolish the government schools per se; she wants to capture and control the government schools in order to serve her ideological agenda.
The “Ed” Schools
Without question, the principal transmission belt delivering Critical Race Theory directly into the bloodstream of America’s K-12 schools is through America’s teacher-training institutions. For almost thirty years now, CRT has dominated the pedagogic philosophy of the nation’s “ed” schools. As one “ed” school professor put it to me recently, “America’s teacher-training institutions are CRT indoctrination factories.”
One major study of the intellectual and pedagogic interests of several thousand “ed” school professors found that upwards of 48 percent of teacher-training faculty at the 20 top-rated teacher colleges had a research interest in race, diversity, and equity and 24 percent said these topics were their “primary” area of study.
“Ed” school professors have also produced scores if not hundreds of books promoting Critical Race Theory. In fact, CRT has become so pervasive in the world of teacher training that James A. Banks, one of America’s most renowned CRT scholars, has edited and published a series of scholarly book on CRT in K-12 education that contains no fewer than 58 volumes! And literally hundreds if not thousands of academic articles on CRT have been published in the “ed” school academic journals. There is even an “education” journal for “ed” school professors and K-12 teachers named “Whiteness and Education” that publishes articles on promoting the teaching of CRT in K-12 classrooms. The journal describes it aims and scope this way:
Whiteness and Education publishes . . . manuscripts that advance critical understandings of the construction and deployment of Whiteness in educational contexts. This includes, but is not limited to, critical discussions of White racism, White identity, privilege, power and intersectionality.
The journal welcomes papers that present empirical studies of Whiteness in education and/or advance theoretical and conceptual understanding of Whiteness in Education, via recognized qualitative and/or quantitative approaches and papers that challenge conventional methodologies. . . . Critically reflective pieces by White scholars, which are explicit in how they contribute to an anti-racist agenda, will be considered.
Notice the last sentence, which suggests that the journal is even open to publishing “White scholars,” but only if they prove their anti-racist bona fides.
Make no mistake about it: Critical Race Theory is openly taught to America’s teachers-in-training. Just go to the website of any college of education and read their mission statement, look at faculty bios and the classes that are being taught, and, most importantly, take a look at the course syllabi used in the teacher-training institutions. A major study of four of the nation’s largest and most influential “ed” schools produced by Jay Schalin for The James G. Martin Center for Academic Renewal demonstrated that Critical Race Theory dominates what is being taught to America’s future teachers. Virtually all of America’s future teachers are exposed to, if not thoroughly indoctrinated in, CRT long before they ever step foot in a K-12 classroom. CRT is as ubiquitous in teacher colleges as its proponents say racism is in American society. It’s everywhere.
Let’s take just one example. One education consortium at New York University has produced a “Culturally Responsive Curriculum Scorecard,” which urges teachers to rate school materials based on whether they adequately address issues of “decolonization, power and privilege.” Such a scorecard for evaluating curricula in the maths and sciences uses rubric that measure the content of courses according to certain ideological criteria, such as whether it “centers the origins of science, technology, engineering, arts and/or math with BIPOC communities (Black, Indigenous, people of color),” or “affirms the multiple forms of communication or language systems during mathematical and scientific argumentation rooted in historically marginalized cultures” or “highlights and affirms the knowledge systems of Indigenous, Black/African, Brown, and non-Western conceptions of science, technology, engineering, arts, and math (such as interdependence, sustainability, and continual change).” Without these criteria by which to evaluate and change how STEM subjects are taught, such subjects would be inherently racist because reason, evidence, logic, and the scientific method are attributes of whiteness.
It should also be noted that much of what is taught in America’s “ed” schools is driven by their accrediting agencies, which require that America’s future teachers be brainwashed with CRT indoctrination. America’s largest “ed” school accrediting organization, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), mandates that every accredited teacher-training program demonstrate that all of its future teachers have reflected on “their personal biases” so as to “increase their understanding and practice of equity, diversity, and inclusion.”
The use and abuse of Critical Race Theory is omnipresent in America’s “ed” schools. And if all future teachers are taught to teach Critical Race Theory (which they are), then CRT will be taught, and that’s that! There is a direct line of influence from the “ed” schools to teachers teaching five-year-olds about their inherent racism.
The Teachers’ Unions
Another vehicle for bootlegging Critical Race Theory into the American school system is through the teachers’ unions. The National Education Association (NEA), for instance, recently declared at its annual meeting that it will promote and its members will teach CRT in all 50 states and throughout more than 14,000 school districts. The union also pledged that it would work with organizations such as Black Lives Matter and the communist-inspired Zinn Education Project, and that it would establish an opposition research team dedicated to providing members with information about how to “fight back against anti-CRT rhetoric.” Like the union thugs they are, the NEA (and the American Federation of Teachers) are not fooling around.
The NEA said it will provide teachers with “an already-created, in-depth, study that critiques empire, white supremacy, anti-Blackness, anti-Indigeneity, racism, patriarchy, cishertopatriarchy, capitalism, ableism, anthropocentrism, and other forms of power and oppression at the intersections of our society, and that we oppose attempts to ban critical race theory and/or The 1619 Project.” All of this is obviously taken from the CRT playbook. The nation’s leading teachers’ union went on to say that it is “reasonable and appropriate for curriculum to be informed by academic frameworks for understanding and interpreting the impact of the past on current society.” The “academic framework” to which the NEA refers (they sometimes call it a “lens”) is Critical Race Theory. So as not to raise any alarms, though, CRT is usually marketed under the guise of very nice sounding terms, such as “diversity,” “equity,” and “inclusion.”
According to Becky Pringle, president of the NEA, America’s teachers “must continuously do the work to challenge [themselves] and others to dismantle the racist interconnected systems and the economic injustices that have perpetuated systemic inequities.” That is, of course, code language for “dismantling” capitalism, which means that the highest goal of CRT really has nothing to do with building harmonious race relations and judging people by the content of their character. The final objective of CRT is to transform America’s schools, and along with it tens of millions of children, to become proponents of socialism.
Yet another avenue used to deliver CRT to America’s K-12 schools is through the Education Establishment’s network of Diversity-Equity-Inclusion (DEI) consultants, who are pocketing a fortune in taxpayer dollars to smuggle CRT into the schools in order to promote the socialist “equity” agenda. These DEI consultants (usually “ed” school professors) are almost always hired by local school boards, who, in consultation with school administrators, are driving the CRT agenda in America’s government schools.
Here are just a few examples of how the DEI-Industrial Complex is profiting from indoctrinating America’s school children with Critical Race Theory.
In New York City, the city’s Department of Education recently spent $23 million—yes, that’s $23 million—on a mandatory, “implicit bias” training program for government-school educators. Teachers and administrators were told at one Diversity-Equity-Inclusion workshop that “racial equity” means favoring black children regardless of their socio-economic status. An “equity” consultant hired by the city for $175,000 told teachers in a mandatory workshop that they must be prepared to disrupt and dismantle the systemic racism that defines American society: “Through this process of moving towards racial equity, we will have to pull layers back on who we are. You are going to have to talk about your power and your privilege. You will need to name your privilege.”
Loudon County Public Schools (LCPS) in Virginia paid the Equity Collaborative, an “equity consulting” organization, $422,000 to tell them how racist the school district was. It then strongly recommended that the districts 15,000 teachers use and adapt the ideas contained in Robin DiAngelo’s book White Fragilty for their lesson plans. This means that the 85,000 students in the LCPS will be learning that “[w]hite identity is inherently racist” and that “white people do not exist outside the system of white supremacy.” The LCPS Board then approved and released an “Action Plan to Combat Systemic Racism” that required teachers and administrators to attend Critical Race Theory workshops and which implemented policies to lower disciplinary and merit-based academic standards. And then, in true Orwellian fashion, the LCPS developed a code of professional conduct that would “punish staff for any comments that are not in alignment with the school division’s commitment to action-oriented equity practices.”
In neighboring Fairfax County, the superintendent of schools paid CRT proponent and “anti-racist” author, Ibram Kendi, $20,000 for a sixty-minute Zoom call with school staff. On behalf of local taxpayers, the Fairfax schools then spent $24,000 to purchase Kendi’s books. To add insult to injury, the principal of Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology told parents to stop complaining and check their “privileges.”
The anti-racism racket is a very lucrative business.
Curriculum Designers and Textbook Publishers
Lastly, let’s consider the role played by curriculum designers and textbook publishers in delivering CRT to America’s government schools.
Let’s start with the work of James A. Banks, one of America’s most influential curriculum designers, who developed a four-step process for integrating a multicultural-CRT framework into America’s schools. Banks’s model curriculum seems to have been adopted all over the United States.
The four-step process works like this:
Step One, or what Banks called the “Contributions Approach,” adds the stories of “ethnic heroes/heroines” to the mainstream curriculum. Interestingly, the kind of black heroes that Banks would add to the traditional curriculum are only those favored by the political Left (e.g., W. E. B. Dubois and Paul Robeson), whereas those great African-Americans who embodied or promoted the values of a free society (e.g., Booker T. Washington and Jackie Robinson) are excluded.
Step Two, or the “Additive Approach,” goes beyond the contributions approach by simply adding more “ethnic” content to the curriculum (a book, a unit, or a full course) without restructuring the content of the course in any meaningful way.
On the face of it, Steps One and Two seem perfectly reasonable and appropriate until one learns that their purpose is simply to soften the ground and prepare the way for the real goal of Banks’s CRT curriculum.
Step Three, or the “Transformation Approach,” represents not a reform of the curriculum but the first attempt to radicalize it. The transformation approach “decenters” the curriculum from a white, male, cis-gendered, heterosexual European perspective to one that examines discrete events from multiple perspectives (e.g., from black, Asian, indigenous, female, LGBTQ+ perspectives). The transformation approach is to be applied to all subjects, including the math and sciences.
Finally, Step Four, or the “Social Action Approach,” is the most radical and demonstrates the ultimate intentions of Critical Race Theory and just how invidious it is. The social action phase requires students to commit themselves to “social justice” and to act in its name. According to Banks, the major pedagogic goals of the social action approach are “to educate students for social criticism and social change” and to “help them become reflective social critics and skilled participants in social change” so that “marginalized and excluded racial, ethnic, and cultural groups can become full participants in U. S. society and the nation will move closer to attaining its democratic ideals.” In this approach, teachers are not concerned with transmitting the accumulated knowledge and wisdom of Western civilization but are “agents of social change who promote democratic values and the empowerment of students.”
Banks’s theoretical curriculum was put into practice recently by Community Responsive Education (CRE), a left-wing organization that offers “professional and curriculum development services” to school districts around the United States. The Jefferson Elementary School District (JESD) in Daly City, California recently paid $170,000 of taxpayer money for CRE to design a new curriculum for the district’s elementary and middle schools that would “eliminate racism and other forms of oppression.” The goal of this curriculum is to assist students in becoming “co-conspirators/accomplices in the elimination of oppression.” The new JESD curriculum for children ages 5-13 supports all of the standard CRT propaganda (e.g., that America is a fundamentally racist nation run by and for white supremacists), but it goes a step further and teaches children how to mobilize and participate in “transformational resistance” and how to “pursue true liberation” via a proper understanding of “solidarity, liberation, collective action, intersectionality, and dismantling systemic oppression.” The CRE curriculum is being used in at least six other California school districts as well as school systems in New York, Texas, South Carolina, and Pennsylvania.
Without question, the best-known vehicle introducing Critical Race Theory into the government schools in recent years has been The New York Times’s 1619 Project, which is now openly and explicitly taught in thousands of schools to millions of children. The 1619 Project applies the methods and principles of CRT directly to the study of American history and society. According to the non-profit Pulitzer Center, which is investing enormous sums of money into supplying America’s schools with a 1619 Project curriculum, some 4,500+ schools have thus far adopted the 1619 Project’s ideas in their curriculum since 2019. To push the 1619 Project agenda, the Pulitzer Center has developed downloadable lesson plans, project resources, and online workshops for teachers and students around the United States. It’s also offering $5,000 teacher grants to implement the 1619 curriculum into their classrooms.
Likewise, the extremist, far-left-wing Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) has developed its own CRT curriculum for America’s school system. The SPLC curriculum titled “Teaching Hard History: A 6-12 Framework for Teaching American Slavery” would essentially turn the teaching of American history into teaching the history of slavery as its sole focus. Because American society is and always has been systemically racist, according to the SPLC curriculum, the focus of any study of American history should be on slavery as the driving narrative. According to the curriculum’s lead author, “American slavery is the key to understanding the complexity of out past.” In other words, anything and everything that Americans think is good about their past is actually tinged with racism, which means that the United States of America is a fundamentally and irredeemably immoral nation. This is what America’s children must be brow-beaten with every day, all day.
And then there is the Pacific Educational Group (PEG) that helps school districts to redesign their curricula. In 2015, PEG organized a national conference for K-12 teachers and school administrators to help them to “decenter” and “interrupt” whiteness from their school curricula. Panels and workshops included one on “White Privilege, White Responsibility: Deepening Our Commitment as White Allies in the Struggle for Racial Equity in Schools.” The workshop’s themes and goals were described this way:
To achieve racial equity in schools, all educators must be able to identify and communicate where their own personal whiteness plays out in classroom, school, and community systems. Deepen your ability to focus a critical lens on your own whiteness and privilege and see how they impact your life. Through the tenets of Critical Race Theory, analyze how society constructs whiteness as the dominant norm in the U.S. Explore what it means to be a white educator leading for racial equity without perpetuating a system of white dominance.
Other conference workshops included topics such as “The Negative Effects of White Privilege for People of Color,” “The Pathology of White Denial and The Pedagogy of Critical Race Theory for White Educators,” “Equity Coaching as a Means to Interrupt Systemic Racism and Improve Instructional Practice,” “White Supremacy, White Privilege, and Oppression,” and “Increasing White Racial Consciousness To Expand White Racial Consciousness.”
As the curriculum goes, so go the textbooks. Not surprisingly, the K-12 textbook industry has also gone all in for Critical Race Theory. Virtually all K-12 textbooks and reading materials in virtually all subjects have been rewritten by the textbook publishers in recent years to accommodate CRT.
Let me share just one example with you. According to the popular CRT children’s book Anti-Racism Fight Club (subtitled The Fistbook for Kids), a book given to children as young as four years of age, “[w]hite people are a part of a society that benefits them in almost every instance.” The book goes on to say, “it’s as if White people walk around with an invisible force field because they hold all of the power in America.” This is what CRT’s proponents mean when they say that racism and “white privilege” are ubiquitous in American society. The goal is to teach young children to be militant fighters for “anti-racism.”
Just so we’re clear: none of this is education, it’s indoctrination; none of this is teaching, it’s brainwashing; and none of this is pedagogy, it’s activism.
Over the course of the last thirty years, America’s government schools have been thoroughly radicalized with Critical Race Theory and various other adjacent pedagogic philosophies. These ideas are now baked into America’s school system, and you can’t do anything about it. You can’t get rid of it and there is no going back. But the situation is actually worse than that. Not only have your children been indoctrinated with left-wing ideology, they have been consciously and systematically turned into political activists.
The Left’s long march through the institutions has been a stunning success. By controlling the Education Deep State, the radical Left has laid the foundation for a revolutionary political program that seeks to destroy America’s free institutions. What Americans saw in the summer of 2020 as many of the nation’s major cities burned is the necessary and logical consequence of what America’s children have been taught in the government schools for the last thirty years. And believe me when I tell you, this is just the beginning.
America’s government school system cannot be reformed or saved. It has been captured lock, stock, and barrel by the militant, neo-Marxist Left. The government school system must therefore be abolished.
Do your part and #JustWalkAway.
. Andrew J. Coulson, “Planning Ahead is Considered Racist?,” Seattle PI, May 31, 2006, http://www.seattlepi.com/local/opinion/article/Planning-ahead-is-considered-racist-1204942.php.
. Gloria Ladson-Billings and William F. Tate IV, “Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education,” Teachers College Record, vol 97, no. 1 (1995): p. 57.
. Andrew J. Coulson, “Planning Ahead is Considered Racist?,” Seattle PI, May 31, 2006, http://www.seattlepi.com/local/opinion/article/Planning-ahead-is-considered-racist-1204942.php.
. Christine Sleeter, Multicultural Education as Social Activism (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996), 195.
. Rick Esenberg and Daniel Lennington, “Critical Race Theory Has No Place in American Schools,” RealClear Education, June 14, 2021: https://www.realcleareducation.com/articles/2021/06/14/critical_race_theory_has_no_place_in_american_schools_110595.html.
. Christopher F. Rufo, “Bad Education: Department of Education-funded conference calls for ‘abolition’ of American institutions,” September 10, 2020: https://christopherrufo.com/bad-education-3/.
. Frederick M. Hess and Lindsey M. Burke, “Does Race Get Short Shrift in Education Research and Teacher Training,” Heritage Foundation Issue Brief No. 6073, April 5, 202: https://www.heritage.org/education/report/does-race-get-short-shrift-education-research-and-teacher-training.
. Jay Schalin, “The Politicization of University Schools of Education: The Long March through the Education Schools,” The James G. Martin Center for Academic Renewal, February 2019: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://www.jamesgmartin.center/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/The-Politicization-of-University-Schools-of-Education.pdf.
. Leah Q. Peoples, Tahia Islam, and Timothy Davis, “The Culturally Responsive Sustaining Steam Curriculum Scorecard,” NYU Metro Center, 2021: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://steinhardt.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/2021-02/CRSE-STEAMScorecard_FIN_optimized%20%281%29.pdf; Frederick M. Hess and Tracey Schirra, “ ‘Culturally Responsive Education’ Can Morph From Appealing Theory to Troubling Practice,” RealClear Policy, September 7, 2021: https://www.realclearpolicy.com/articles/2021/09/07/culturally_responsive_education_can_morph_from_appealing_theory_to_troubling_practice_793227.html.
 Chrissy Clark, “Nation’s Largest Teachers Union Says It Will Teach Critical Race Theory In All 50 States, 14,000 School Districts,” DailyWire.com, July 5, 2021: https://www.dailywire.com/news/nations-largest-teachers-union-says-it-will-teach-critical-race-theory-in-all-50-states-1400-school-districts.
. William A. Galston, “How Adherents see ‘Critical Race Theory’,” The Wall Street Journal, July 13, 2021: https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-adherents-see-critical-race-theory-11626199490?mod=article_inline (emphasis added).
. Susan Edelman, “Teachers allegedly told to favor black students in ‘racial equity’ training,” New York Post, May 25, 2019: https://nypost.com/2019/05/25/teachers-allegedly-told-to-treat-black-students-as-victims-punish-whites/.
. Robin DiAngelo, White Fragility: Why It’s So Hard for White People to Talk About Racism (Boston: Beacon Press, 2018), 149.
. John Beatty, “Teach Respect, Not Critical Race Theory,” Wall Street Journal, August 24, 2021: https://www.wsj.com/articles/critical-race-theory-loudoun-culture-wars-systemic-racism-education-teachers-union-11629837816; Ian Prior, “More Va. Public Schools Using Kids as Guinea Pigs For Critical Race Theory,” TheFederalist.com, October 13, 2020: https://thefederalist.com/2020/10/13/more-va-public-schools-using-kids-as-guinea-pigs-for-critical-race-theory/.
. Asra Q. Nomani, “Critical Race Theory Permeates New Student Survey in Fairfax Public Schools,” TheFederalist.com, October 21, 2020: https://thefederalist.com/2020/10/21/critical-race-theory-permeates-new-student-survey-in-fairfax-public-schools/.
. James A. Banks, “Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform,” in Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, ed. James A. Banks and Cherry A. Banks, 9th ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2016), 151-170.
. Spencer Linquist, “California District Pays Nearly $170k For Curricula Teaching Children to Become Leftist ‘Co-Conspirators’,” TheFederalist.com, January 12, 2022: https://thefederalist.com/2022/01/12/california-district-pays-nearly-170k-for-curricula-teaching-children-to-become-leftist-co-conspirators/ (emphasis added).
. Cortney O’Brien, “NYT Magazine’s 1619 Project paved the ways for mainstream media to pursue CRT and race-based reporting: Experts,” FoxNews.com, April 25, 2022: https://www.foxnews.com/media/nyt-magazines-1619-project-mainstream-media-crt-race-based-reporting.
. To access the Pulitzer Center 1619 Project Curriculum, see here: https://pulitzercenter.org/lesson-plan-grouping/1619-project-curriculum.
. Southern Poverty Law Center, “Teaching Hard History: A 6-12 Framework for Teaching American Slavery”: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/https://www.learningforjustice.org/sites/default/files/2019-11/Teaching-Hard-History-American-Slavery-6-12-Framework.pdf.
 Quoted in Alex Nester, “Read the ‘Antiracism Fight Club’ Guide Distributed at a Public Elementary School,” The Washington Free Beacon, May 2, 2022: https://freebeacon.com/campus/read-the-antiracism-fight-club-guide-distributed-at-a-public-elementary-school/.